Prokaryotic cells are the earliest forms of lives on the earth and simples cells which evolved nearly 3.5 billion years ago. Almost 1.5 billion later, more advanced and complex cells called eukaryotic cells evolved which make up superior organisms such as plants and animals.
Despite being evolved in such a significant gap of time, these cells are known to have some similarities which are clearly listed below.
Usually, the diameter of prokaryotic cells ranges from 0.1–5.0µm while the diameter of eukaryotic cells ranges from 10-100µm. Despite the difference, both the cells are microscopic and are visible only through light and electronic microscope.
All prokaryotic cell and unicellular eukaryotic cells have flagella; thin thread like structure attached to the outer surface of the cell. The flagella help in locomotion and chemotaxis.
Although different in structure, DNA is the genetic material in both types of cells.
Protein-RNA complex molecules called Ribosomes are present in both the cells. Ribosomes in both the cell carry out same function.
Cell organelles in prokaryotic cells as well as in eukaryotic cells are held in place by the cytoplasm. The cytoplasm of both types of cells also has similar composition.
Cell wall is the extra rigid outermost covering of the cell which prevents cell dehydration and provides typical shape to the cell. Such protective layer is present in all prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic plant cells.
Ability to reproduce asexually
All prokaryotic cells and almost all eukaryotic cells reproduce asexually. Binary fission is the process that prokaryotic cells reproduce through while eukaryotic cells reproduce through mitosis. (Note: eukaryotic cells also reproduce sexually)